The roadmap will address critical codes and standards issues including high-power DC charging, storage (i.e., microgrid, distributed energy resource management systems) integrated with DC charging, vehicle grid integration, high-power scalable/interoperable wireless charging, and vehicle-oriented systems. Subject matter experts representing the following types of organizations (among others) are invited to participate:
Energy service providers (electric utilities, energy retailers)
EV services providers (charging network operators)
EV fleet operators / managers
Cloud service providers
Providers of telematics user services
Building energy management system operators
Distributed energy resource aggregators
Standards developing organizations
Government (federal, state, local)
Those interested in participating are invited to review the panel architecture and schedule of working group calls and sign upfor one or more working groups. The working groups are holding virtual meetings twice a month with subgroups developing content covering specific issues over the next several months. Even those unable to make all the calls can contribute to the document’s development. Public comment on the draft roadmap is targeted for mid-February 2023, and publication of a final roadmap is targeted by mid-May 2023. Participation is open to EV stakeholders that have operations in the United States.
There is no fee associated with participating in the EVSP and, ANSI membership, while encouraged, is not required to participate. The DOE VTO/ANL are supporting ANSI’s facilitation of the EVSP roadmapping effort. Sponsorship opportunities (with associated recognition benefits) are available to interested public- and private-sector stakeholders who would like to provide such support. ANSI is a 501c3 not-for-profit membership organization, and all funds are directly applied to help offset ANSI’s costs of administering the EVSP.
“In order to undertake a comprehensive analysis of the codes and standards needed for the scalable deployment of electric vehicles, it is essential that we engage all affected stakeholders. ANSI invites all interested stakeholders to have a seat at the table and participate in this important initiative,” said S. Joe Bhatia, ANSI president and CEO.
The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is a private non-profit organization whose mission is to enhance both the global competitiveness of U.S. business and the U.S. quality of life by promoting and facilitating voluntary consensus standards and conformity assessment systems, and safeguarding their integrity. Its membership is comprised of businesses, professional societies and trade associations, standards developers, government agencies, and consumer and labor organizations.
The Institute represents and serves the diverse interests of more than 270,000 companies and organizations and 30 million professionals worldwide. ANSI is the official U.S. representative to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and, via the U.S. National Committee, the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). For more information, visit www.ansi.org.
Jim McCabe | Senior Director, Standards Facilitation | American National Standards Institute
25 West 43 Street, 4th Floor | New York, NY 10036 U.S.A.
The Town of Miami Lakes (“Town”) is actively seeking proposals from qualified electric vehicle charging station vendors/distributors/operators/manufacturers to install, operate, maintain, and manage the customer service volume from all stations in select Town owned locations at NO COST to the Town, in accordance with the terms, conditions, and specifications contained in the RFP.
Furthermore, the Town intends to enter into a contract to install, operate, and maintain self-service electric vehicle charging stations for public use. . The selected proposer will be required to implement a program that should enable the public to utilize electric vehicle charging stations. Services are expected to be available on a 24-hour, 365-day-a-year (full-time) basis with sufficient resources and personnel to support and maintain the program successfully.
The Town of Miami Lakes (“Town”) became the 31st municipality in Miami-Dade County. Known as one of the youngest cities in the County, Miami Lakes is home to approximately 30,000 residents and more than 1,700 businesses. Miami Lakes is located in Northwest Miami-Dade County, conveniently located just 16 miles North of Downtown Miami and 10 miles from Miami International Airport, the Town encompasses approximately 6.8 square miles. The official boundaries are NW 170th Street and the Palmetto Expressway (SR 826) to the North; NW 138th Street to the South; NW 57th Avenue (Red Road) to the East; and Interstate 75 to the West.
According to a recent study conducted by the Miami-Dade Transportation Planning Organization (TPO), Miami-Dade County is the most populous county in Florida with a population of approximately 2.58 million residents in 2015. The population in Miami-Dade County is expected to continue to grow to 3.5 million by the year 2045, representing a growth of 34 percent (34%). Moreover, the study projects that the Northwest Dade region (where Miami Lakes is in) will see the largest employment growth at 30.6 percent (30.6%) within the region. This projected growth in the number of residents and visitors of MiamiDade County will increase demand and congestion on the transportation system. There, to keep growing beautifully, the Town of Miami Lakes desires to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. One of the primary goals for Miami Lakes is to be innovative, beautiful, and to support a high level of quality of life for its residents by bringing new environmental infrastructure. The Town is looking to provide accessibility and convenience for its residents. The project aligns with the Town’s adopted Strategic Plan Priority Area 4: Environmental Sustainability, Objective 4.7, and Initiative 4.7.1: build charging stations as an alternative energy source.
Furthermore, this project aligns with the Adopted Miami Lakes SMART Technology Implementation Plan Objective to Install Electric Vehicle Charging Stations within the Town. Moreover, this project will provide the necessary infrastructure to encourage more electric vehicle usage and ownership throughout the Town, reduce mobile source emissions and pollutants, and assist the Town in achieving universal environmental sustainability.
The final locations of the different electric vehicle charging stations throughout the Town will provide convenience and accessibility to the Town’s residents and employees and promote the use of electric vehicles as a sustainable action. Some of the already mentioned benefits to the Town are the improvement of the air quality within the municipal boundaries, quieter and more livable streets, and decreased dependency on fossil fuels. The Town foresees this program running in integration with other initiatives currently pursued to offer different transportation modes while maintaining and achieving
B3. COST AND REVENUE
The Town has determined to permit the contractor to propose a cost option to the Town which involves no out-of-pocket costs to the Town and revenue sharing with the Town. Proposer shall pay the Town a percentage of the revenues of the proceeds from the sale of electricity and use of the charging stations to the public as well as reimbursement of electricity used if the Proposer has chosen to connect to the Town’s electricity network.
If the Proposer proposes charging the public for use of electricity and the charging stations, the EV chargers must allow for point-of-sale transactions and provide for revenue remittance to the Town. Proposer shall reimburse the Town for electricity used if Proposer chooses to connect to the Town’s electricity network. Contractor must also clearly describe the cost of energy per kWhr, how that price is calculated, and how it changes over time, and this shall be included in the Cost and Revenue Proposal.
B4. PROPOSED PROGRAM
[SPACE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK]
Contractor must provide an electric vehicle charging station program which includes, at a minimum, the following networking capabilities and benefits:
A. Electric vehicle charging station infrastructure for AC level 2 and/or DC Fast Charge that is open to all drivers without requiring subscriptions on a 24-hour, 365-day-a-year (full-time) basis.
B. Provide AC level 2 charging that transfers 240 volts (up to 19.2 Kw) of electricity from the electrical grid to vehicle batteries (recharging vehicles faster than AC level 1) and/or DC fast charging that transfers high velocity (typically 400-500 volts or 32-100 Kw, depending on the electrical current) of direct electricity to vehicle batteries, at the Proposer’s cost.
C. Financial stability to cover for ALL costs incurred related, but not limited to, electricity usage, capital equipment, installation, operation, and maintenance. Moreover, the economic sustainability to propose a business model that is advantageous to ALL parties, including residents, Proposer, and the Town for the benefit of utilizing parking spaces at strategic locations.
D. Ability for drivers to find charging stations via web-enabled cell phones.
E. Notification by SMS, text, on-app, and/or email when charging is complete.
F. Authenticated access to eliminate energy theft.
G. Authorized emergencies for safety where Proposer should provide a detailed account of their system’s safety measures; user instructions; user preventative safety measures; and user instructions in case of emergencies.
H. Remote monitoring and diagnostic for superior quality of service on a regular basis and/or as needed.
I. Smart Grid integration for utility load management with future Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) capabilities when feasible.
Electric Vehicle Charging Stations RFP 2022-16
J. Green House Gas savings calculations per vehicle.
K. Comply with Miami-Dade County and Town of Miami Lakes Building and electrical codes.
L. Compliance with the American with Disabilities Act (ADA) accessible buttons, components, placement, distance, among others.
M. Comply with relevant or local standard for electrical connectors, such as SAE Surface Vehicle Recommended Practice J1772, SAE Electric Vehicle Conductive Charge Coupler.
N. Have network or internet addressable and be capable of participating in a demand-response program or time-of-use pricing to encourage off-peak charging.
O. The equipment/components can be listed by Underwriters Laboratories (UL) or any Nationally Recognized Testing laboratory (NRTL) that meets the requirements of OSHA in 29CFR.1910.7 for the use of “Electric Vehicle Charging Stations.”
P. Ability to operate in extreme temperature conditions.
Q. Ability to secure infrastructure within 24 hours of a hurricane warning.
R. The capabilities to provide accessible and convenient infrastructure placement and accommodation so all users can take advantage of the service, including but not limited to, people with disabilities, elderly, etc.
B6. CHARGING LOCATIONS
The preliminary locations are suggestions, are subject to all applicable approvals and permits, and may be modified with consent of the Town. Contractor shall be responsible for performing a due diligence and investigation of the locations and must also determine the suitability or non-suitability of each site. Contract proposing substitutions or omissions from the locations suggested above shall document their rationale.
A. Town of Miami Lakes Government Center: 6601 Main Street, Miami Lakes, FL 33014
B. Veterans Park: 15151 NW 82nd Avenue, Miami Lakes, FL 33014
C. Miami Lakes Optimist Park: 6411 NW 162nd Street, Miami Lakes, FL 33014
D. Royal Oaks Park: 16500 NW 87th Avenue, Miami Lakes, FL 33018
The Town reserves the right to add or remove locations to this list.
Contractor shall furnish and install all materials, equipment, and labor required for the installation of the EV charging station(s). The Contractor is also responsible for securing all related permits and coordinating with the utility companies. Following the installation, the Contractor shall activate and test the EV charging station(s) and will be responsible for the safe operation of all equipment and connections.
A. Proposer must clearly state the methodology for the chosen location to pursue the installation of the charging station.
B. Proposer must disclose any challenges, if any, with electrical current conditions at the proposed Locations.
C. The equipment details must be shown on the submittal.
Title: ●Accessibility Guidelines for Electric Vehicle Charging Stations
Abstract:Electric vehicle (EV) charging stations are becoming commonplace with the rising production and use of electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles. According to the U.S. Department of Energy, there are nearly 50,000 public EV charging stations with almost 127,000 charging ports across the country. The Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act, signed into law in November 2021, allocates $7.5 billion to construct a national network of 500,000 EV charging stations to accelerate the adoption of EVs. It is expected that the installation and use of EV charging stations will continue to expand; however, at present, there are no federal regulations specifying accessibility requirements for EV charging stations to ensure that they are accessible to and useable by persons with disabilities. The Access Board thus intends to publish a notice of proposed rulemaking to supplement its Accessibility Guidelines under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and Architectural Barriers Act (ABA) with scoping and technical requirements for electric vehicle charging stations.
Agency: Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board(ATBCB)
Priority: Substantive, Nonsignificant
RIN Status: First time published in the Unified Agenda
Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board
1331 F Street NW,
Washington, DC 20004
TDD Phone:202 272-0076
Email: [email protected]
The recently enacted Bipartisan Infrastructure Law invests in the deployment of electric vehicle (EV) charging infrastructure as one of many important ways to confront the climate crisis. Through a National Electric Vehicle Formula Program (EV Charging Program), the law provides funding to States to strategically deploy EV charging infrastructure and to establish an interconnected network to facilitate data collection, access, and reliability. The law also establishes a discretionary grant program for Charging and Fueling Infrastructure (Charging and Fueling Infrastructure Program) to strategically deploy publicly accessible EV charging infrastructure and hydrogen, propane, and natural gas fueling infrastructure along designated alternative fuel corridors or in certain other locations that are accessible to all drivers of such vehicles. The law directs DOT, in coordination or consultation with the Department of Energy (DOE), to develop guidance for both programs. Through this notice, FHWA invites public comments to inform the development of the guidance. FHWA is especially interested in comments suggesting ways that the guidance could promote equity in the deployment of EV charging infrastructure under these programs.
Comments would be most useful if they are received on or before January 28, 2022 to allow for their consideration during development of the EV Charging Program guidance. FHWA will consider comments received after the due date to the extent practicable.
To ensure that you do not duplicate your docket submissions, please submit comments by only one of the following means:
• Mail: Docket Management Facility, U.S. Department of Transportation, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, Washington, DC 20590-0001;
• Hand Delivery: West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE, Washington, DC 20590-0001, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. e.t., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. The telephone number is (202) 366-9329;
• Instructions: You must include the agency name and docket number at the beginning of your comments. All comments received will be posted without change to http://www.regulations.gov,, including any personal information provided.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:
Kerry Rodgers, Office of the Chief Counsel, (202) 366-1376, or via email at [email protected]. FHWA is located at 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE, Washington, DC 20590. Office hours are from 8:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. e.t., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays.
Electronic Access and Filing
A copy of this Notice, all comments received on this Notice, and all background material may be viewed online at http://www.regulations.gov using the docket number listed above. Electronic retrieval help and guidelines are also available at http://www.regulations.gov. An electronic copy of this document also may be downloaded from the Office of the Federal Register’s website at www.FederalRegister.gov and the Government Publishing Office’s website at www.GovInfo.gov.
Confidential Business Information
Confidential Business Information (CBI) is commercial or financial information that is both customarily and actually treated as private by its owner. Under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) (5 U.S.C. 552), CBI is exempt from public disclosure. If your comments responsive to this RFI contain commercial or financial information that is customarily treated as private, that you actually treat as private, and that is relevant or responsive to this RFI, it is important that you clearly designate the submitted comments as CBI. Pursuant to 49 CFR 190.343, you may ask FHWA to give confidential treatment to information you give to the Agency by taking the following steps: (1) Mark each page of the original document submission containing CBI as “Confidential”; (2) send FHWA, along with the original document, a second copy of the original document with the CBI deleted; and (3) explain why the information you are submitting is CBI. Unless you are notified otherwise, FHWA will treat such marked submissions as confidential under the FOIA, and they will not be placed in the public docket of this RFI. Submissions containing CBI should be sent to Kerry Rodgers, FHWA Office of the Chief Counsel, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE, Washington, DC 20590. Any comment submissions that FHWA receives that are not specifically designated as CBI will be placed in the public docket for this matter.
The Bipartisan Infrastructure Law, enacted as the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act (IIJA), Public Law 117-58 (Nov. 15, 2021), includes important new programs to address climate change by reducing carbon emissions. Among these programs is a national EV Charging Program to provide funding that FHWA shall distribute among the States to strategically deploy EV charging infrastructure and to establish an interconnected network to facilitate data collection, access, and reliability. Funds must be used for: (1) The acquisition and installation of EV charging infrastructure to serve as a catalyst for the deployment of such infrastructure and to connect it to a network to facilitate data collection, access, and reliability; (2) proper operation and maintenance of EV charging infrastructure; and (3) data sharing about EV charging infrastructure to ensure the long-term success of investments made under the program. The Federal share payable for projects funded under the EV Charging Program is 80 percent. EV Charging Program funds may be used to contract with a private entity for acquisition and installation of publicly accessible EV charging infrastructure, and the private entity may pay the non-Federal share of the project cost. However, funds must be used for projects directly related to vehicle charging and only for EV charging infrastructure that is open to the general public or to authorized commercial motor vehicle operators from more than one company. Further, any EV charging infrastructure acquired or installed with program funds must be located along a designated alternative fuel corridor, unless a State determines, and the Secretary of Transportation (Secretary) certifies, that the designated alternative fuel corridors in the State are fully built out. In that case, the State could use the funds for EV charging infrastructure on any public road or in other publicly accessible locations.
The Bipartisan Infrastructure Law also requires that a State, by a deadline to be set by DOT, provide a plan to DOT describing how the State intends to use the funds it receives under the EV Charging Program for each fiscal year in which funds are made available. No later than 120 days after the deadline for submittal of the State plans, DOT is required to issue a publicly available report on its website summarizing each State plan submitted and assessing how the State plans to make progress towards the establishment of a national EV charging infrastructure network. If a State fails to submit the required plan, or if DOT determines that a State has not taken action to carry out its plan, DOT may, as applicable, withhold or withdraw funds made available under the EV Charging Program for the fiscal year after providing notice to and consulting with the State and providing an opportunity for the State to address any concerns and implement its plan or to appeal DOT’s decision to withhold or withdraw funds. In such situations, DOT may award such funds on a competitive basis to local jurisdictions within the State for use on projects that meet the EV Charging Program’s eligibility requirements. If DOT determines that such withheld or withdrawn funds cannot be fully awarded to local jurisdictions within the State, DOT is required to distribute any remaining funds among other States that have not had funds withheld or withdrawn under the program as the law provides.
Another new program is the Charging and Fueling Infrastructure Program, a competitive grant program to strategically deploy publicly accessible EV charging infrastructure and hydrogen, propane, and natural gas fueling infrastructure (eligible fueling infrastructure) along designated alternative fuel corridors or in certain other locations that are accessible to all drivers of such vehicles. Through this program for corridor and community charging, the Secretary will award grants to eligible entities that include States or political subdivisions, metropolitan planning organizations, local governments, special purpose districts or public authorities with a transportation function, Indian tribes, U.S. territories, authorities or agencies owned by one or more of these eligible entities, or groups of eligible entities. Eligible entities must use grants to contract with a private entity for acquisition and installation of publicly accessible EV charging infrastructure or eligible fueling infrastructure that is directly related to vehicle charging or fueling. Publicly accessible EV charging infrastructure or eligible fueling infrastructure installed with grants under this program must be located along a designated alternative fuel corridor, except in the case of the community grants described below.
The Bipartisan Infrastructure Law requires that the Secretary reserve 50 percent of the amounts made available each fiscal year to carry out the Charging and Fueling Infrastructure Program to provide community grants to eligible entities. Eligible entities include those previously described and State or local authorities that own publicly accessible transportation facilities. The Secretary may award community grants for projects that are expected to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to expand or fill gaps in access to publicly accessible EV charging infrastructure or eligible fueling infrastructure, including certain development phase activities and the acquisition or installation of such infrastructure that is directly related to vehicle charging or fueling, including any related construction or reconstruction and the acquisition of real property directly related to the project. Projects that receive community grants may be located on any public road or in other publicly accessible locations such as parking facilities at public buildings, public schools, and public parks, or in publicly accessible parking facilities owned or managed by a private entity.
The law requires the Secretary, in awarding community grants, to give priority to projects that expand access to EV charging and eligible fueling infrastructure in rural areas, low- and moderate-income neighborhoods, and communities with a low ratio of private parking spaces to households or a high ratio of multi-unit dwellings to single family homes. The Secretary also must consider the extent to which a project contributes to geographic diversity among eligible entities, including a balance between urban and rural communities, and meets current or anticipated market demands for charging or fueling infrastructure.
The Federal share of the cost of a project carried out with a grant under the Charging and Fueling Infrastructure Program shall not exceed 80 percent of the total project cost. Projects carried out under the program are treated as projects on a Federal-aid highway and are subject to certain other requirements.
Development of Guidance
The Bipartisan Infrastructure Law directs DOT, in coordination with DOE and within 90 days of the law’s enactment, to develop guidance for States and localities to strategically deploy EV charging infrastructure through the EV Charging Program, based on the consideration of nine factors. The law also directs DOT, during the redesignation of alternative fuel corridors under 23 U.S.C. 151, to issue a report that summarizes best practices and provides guidance, developed through consultation with DOE, for project development of EV charging infrastructure and hydrogen, propane, and natural gas fueling infrastructure at the State, Tribal, and local levels to allow for the predictable deployment of that infrastructure. The guidance we develop also may be relevant to EV charging infrastructure that receives funding from other Federal funding sources.
Request for Comments and Information
As we begin to develop the guidance for the EV Charging Program and for project development of EV charging infrastructure, and we prepare to implement the Charging and Fueling Infrastructure Program, FHWA requests comments and information from the public. In particular, FHWA requests comments to inform its development of the statutorily required EV Charging Program guidance. Please indicate in your written comments the number(s) of the considerations(s) you are commenting on and provide specific examples or information to illustrate your comments where possible. The statutory considerations for the EV Charging Program are:
1. The distance between publicly available EV charging infrastructure;
2. Connections to the electric grid, including electric distribution upgrades; vehicle-to-grid integration, including smart charge management or other protocols that can minimize impacts to the grid; alignment with electric distribution interconnection processes, and plans for the use of renewable energy sources to power charging and energy storage;
3. The proximity of existing off-highway travel centers, fuel retailers, and small businesses to EV charging infrastructure acquired or funded under the Program;
4. The need for publicly available EV charging infrastructure in rural corridors and underserved or disadvantaged communities;
5. The long-term operation and maintenance of publicly available EV charging infrastructure to avoid stranded assets and protect the investment of public funds in that infrastructure;
6. Existing private, national, State, local, Tribal, and territorial government EV charging infrastructure programs and incentives;
7. Fostering enhanced, coordinated, public-private or private investment in EV charging infrastructure;
8. Meeting current and anticipated market demands for EV charging infrastructure, including with regard to power levels and charging speed, and minimizing the time to charge current and anticipated vehicles; and
9. Any other factors, as determined by the Secretary.
In connection with question 9, please describe any other factors that you suggest that we consider in developing the EV Charging Program guidance.
FHWA also requests comments to inform the implementation of the Charging and Fueling Infrastructure Program to provide discretionary grants for corridor and community charging. Specifically:
11. What topics do you suggest that we address in guidance on project development of EV charging infrastructure and hydrogen, propane, and natural gas fueling infrastructure at the State, Tribal, and local levels to allow for the predictable deployment of that infrastructure?
12. Please provide any suggestions to inform the administration of competitive grants under the Charging and Fueling Infrastructure Program for corridor and community charging.
In Ukraine, EV charging stations between Moscow and St Petersburg “hacked”
Pod Point in UK may have put 140,000 app users data at risk
Hacking the station can mean access to the grid
It can also mean access to your car
Currently 2 million charging stations worldwide
“The first risk is denial of service, which means you cannot charge your car,” says Yoav Levy, CEO of Upstream Security, a startup based in Herzliya, Israel, which already secures connected vehicles from cyber attacks and is now providing software protection to keep EV charging stations safe.
“The second risk is that your EV is talking to the charging station exchanging messages on how much charging time and how much battery is left. That could be an entry point, actually to hack into the vehicle.
4600 large screens (55 inch outdoor) across the country
Over a billion impressions though there is no explanation for that number basis. e.g. if I go shopping at Kohls for 45 minutes do those 30 minutes of ads count as impressions?
We have no idea what the average ROAS is for this form of advertising. Data firm Quotient calculated for Coke “$2.51 million in attributable sales and a ROAS 56 percent higher than average” relative to Volta. No idea what average ROAS is.
Roughly 2300 installations given dual sided kiosks
L2 Charging Speed: 7-10 kWh, or up to 35 miles of range per hour. Note that miles per kWh vary from ~2 to ~4 miles per kWh depending on the efficiency of your make/model.
DC Fast Charging Speed: 50-60 kWh, or up to 210 miles of range per hour depending on your EV.
Free charging (you just get to watch ads)
Interesting too the age demographics of users (see below)
Metrics for EV Charging Station Advertisers
Volta further distinguishes itself by offering advertisers a suite of measurement capabilities enabled by collaborations with industry-leading measurement companies. These relationships allow Volta to report on the same full-funnel impact marketers have come to expect from the most notable digital advertising platforms. This includes performance metrics like sales lift and incremental return on ad spend (ROAS)—a new frontier for the DOOH industry. Volta’s ability to meaningfully drive bottom-of-the-funnel results was best demonstrated through two recent campaigns. Working with a leading shopper intelligence platform, Catalina, Volta revealed its ability to deliver an 8 percent sales lift for Dole’s products and increase category share for the brand by 8.5 percent. In a separate campaign for Coca-Cola, Volta, and digital media and promotions technology company Quotient, measured $2.51 million in attributable sales and a ROAS 56 percent higher than average.4
Volta Recommended Locations
Best EV Charging Locations – click for full size
Volta User Demographics
Volta Audience Demographics – click for full size
Peerless-AV seems to be the primary producer of these EV Charging Station Kiosks.
The California Air Resources Board recently announced a new goal of tripling electric vehicle (EV) sales over the next four years, reaching 35 percent of all new vehicle sales in the state by 2026. An executive order is already in place dictating that zero-emission vehicles will be 100 percent of all new vehicle sales in California by 2035. Electric vehicles only represent about 1 percent of the 250 million vehicles on U.S. roads today, but that is quickly changing. In addition to the California mandates, there are many other state and federal goals, along with automaker electrification plans, contributing to a rapid rise in EV sales nationwide. General Motors, for example, plans to sell only zero-emission vehicles by 2035, and the Biden administration has a stated goal of 50 percent ZEV sales by 2030. Multiple estimates put the number of EVs on U.S. roads by 2030 at 22 to 25 million.
Significant investment is needed to develop the EV charging infrastructure required to keep pace with the rapid growth in EV adoption. There are three basic types of EV chargers, also known as Electric Vehicle Service Equipment (EVSE) – Level 1, Level 2, and DC fast charging. Capabilities vary, but in general, L1 charging, which is your basic AC outlet, can provide about 4 miles of range per hour, L2 (240V AC) can provide ten range miles in an hour, and DCFC can provide an 80% charge from empty in about 30 minutes (for a standard range EV). The bulk of the EVSE needed will be L2 and DCFC, but the mix of each and where and how this will happen is still uncertain, as I will explain below.
Understanding the current state of public and shared private EVSE infrastructure can get muddy. Different sources sometimes use the terms EV charger and charging station interchangeably, which isn't always accurate. An EV charging station can have one or more chargers, and a single charger will typically have either one or two ports, which is the number of vehicles that can be simultaneously charged. According to the California Energy Commission, there are about 36,000 public EV charging stations in the state.
Per the US Department of Energy, there are about 47,000 public charging stations in the country. These numbers need to increase dramatically to support the expected number of EVs over the next several years. It's well understood that most drivers will rarely need additional public chargers, provided they can charge at home or work. Federal Highway Administration data from 2019 showed that the average American commuter drives about 40 miles per day. So, for those living in single-family homes with the ability to install an L2 residential charger, their needs would be covered mainly by plugging in overnight (excluding occasional road trips). But what about people living in apartments, townhomes, condominiums, and mixed-use dwellings? About 31 percent of the overall population lives in these types of residences. In large urban areas, it's often higher – a recent survey by Plug In America indicated that 70 percent of Los Angeles residents lived in multi-unit spaces. There are many federal and state incentives to help defray the costs of adding EVSE to multi-family structures, and more funds are becoming available with the new infrastructure bill. Still, additional obstacles to making charge-at-home more prevalent for apartment dwellers. Many pre-existing properties and parking garages can't support the power requirements for more than a small percentage of spaces to have even L2 chargers. And tapping into the grid for extra capacity is extremely and usually prohibitively expensive. Load balancing can help boost the number of EVSE systems that can be supported, but we're still talking about small numbers of chargers relative to the number of tenants. Many states are amending their building codes to require some number or percent of spaces to have EV chargers for new residential and commercial construction, which will further help expand our EVSE infrastructure. However, grid capacity is still a major roadblock to rapid EVSE deployment. A recent article by McKinsey and Company estimates that the power demand for charging the number of anticipated EVs in 2030 would equal 5 percent of all U.S. power generation today. Other models have put that number as high as 25 percent. Either way, the message is clear, we need a lot more grid capacity to enable the transition to electric vehicles.
Parallel to the development of EVSE infrastructure, new wind, solar, and other renewable energy installations will be needed to set up Smart Grids capable of handling future charging demands. Where and how much energy is required also depends on the type and location of EVSE. Most of the media buzz around EV charging is centered on expensive DCFC installations and superhubs that mimic something closer to traditional refueling stations. Still, most public and semi-private EVSE will likely be L2. A DC fast charger's total install cost is around 10x – 20x that of an L2, and having many vehicles plugged into DCFCs in one area can put enormous demands on the local grid.
For the interstate system, DCFCs are needed, and establishing strategic Alternative Fuel Corridors with EVSE located every 50 miles is the top priority for the $5B allocated to EV charging deployment in the new Bipartisan Infrastructure Law. However, in cities and urban areas, the high cost and grid demand of DCFCs make L2 chargers the clear choice in most situations, with some exceptions, including DCFCs to support future electrified ride-share vehicles and fleets.
Just exactly how the future deployment of EVSE and grid expansions will play out is complicated, and there are a lot of smart technology companies working on different aspects of the solution and from different perspectives. Still, the number of market variables makes it difficult to predict what the EV charging landscape in the U.S. will look like. While there are a lot of good federal and state incentives for multi-family structures and businesses to add EV charging capacity, the up-front costs have to be weighed against short-term ROI and long-term futureproofing. For example, California requires public EV chargers to accept credit card payments via chip card to ensure
potential consumers' greatest level of access. Apartments and workplaces can restrict their EVSE access to tenants and employees and maintain private status under California law. This enables them to avoid the additional initial cost of an EV charger that accepts EMV-certified card payments, but then they miss out on future monetization opportunities.
In some cases, attracting new residents or employees may be the only ROI for adding EVSE that is needed. Another model for supporting EV adoption among renters who don't have access to charging where they live is called power-sipping or snacking. In this model, drivers top up their batteries as they go about their business at grocery stores, shopping malls, big-box stores, movie theaters, etc. It's been well studied that EV charger usage can significantly increase dwell time at shopping locations, translating into real dollars. Additionally, big box stores and large retail chains have more resources to add EVSE infrastructure. They will likely be a large part of the EV charging solution as internal combustion engine vehicles become scarcer. It's interesting to note the complementary trends in brick-and-mortar retail – increasing foot traffic and dwell time is the primary benefit of adding EV charging capacity. Still, physical retail also continues to compete with online sales by offering services like BOPIS (buy online, pickup in-store) and enhanced delivery services like Walmart's new In-your-fridge grocery delivery service.
The U.S. lags well behind Europe and China in EVSE infrastructure and needs to accelerate quickly to meet the anticipated goals of EV adoption. Government incentives, public-private partnerships, and utility investments will be required to deploy chargers and expand the grid. In theory, drivers only need to charge at home, work, or along the highway for longer trips – but the reality of developing charging infrastructure is much more complex as we have seen, and it will undoubtedly be interesting to see how the charging market develops.
Mike Harris is responsible for ELATEC Inc's business development efforts in the Americas, focusing on strategic verticals including EV charging, Industry 4.0, and access control. He has more than 20 years of experience in product management, engineering management and R&D. Mike can be reached at [email protected] or 772-210-2263.
Mike Harris, Head of Business Development for ELATEC Inc.
The ADA covers entities including state and local governments (Title II) and places of public accommodation and commercial facilities (Title III). Under the ADA, the Access Board issues minimum scoping and technical requirements. Other federal agencies with enforcement responsibility under the ADA, such as the Department of Transportation (DOT) and the Department of Justice (DOJ), adopt enforceable standards that must provide at least the same level of accessibility as the guidelines issued by the Access Board. Additional requirements under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act and ADA regulations issued by DOJ and ADA regulations issued by DOT may be applicable, such as requirements for nondiscrimination in services, programs, and activities. For more information, visit the Access Board’s About the ADA page.
The ABA requires that buildings or facilities that were designed, built, or altered with federal dollars or leased by federal agencies be accessible. The ABA covers a wide range of facilities, including U.S. post offices, Veterans Affairs medical facilities, national parks, Social Security Administration offices, federal office buildings, U.S. courthouses, and federal prisons. It also applies to certain non-government facilities constructed with federal funds, such as funds made available under the National Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Program. For more information, visit the Access Board’s About the ABA page.
The ADA and ABA Accessibility Standards include many requirements applicable to electric vehicle charging stations, among which are provisions regarding access to sites, facilities, buildings, and elements, as well as specific requirements for operable parts and accessible routes. Even absent a specific reference to EV charging stations in the ADA and ABA Standards, regulated entities must still ensure that they are accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities.
Some EV chargers also have user interfaces and payment systems that would be considered information and communication technology (ICT). Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act requires individuals with disabilities have access to and use of ICT provided by the Federal government. The law applies to all Federal agencies when they develop, procure, maintain, or use ICT. Federal agencies must ensure that any ICT that is part of an EV charger is accessible to employees and members of the public with disabilities to the extent it does not pose an “undue burden.”
In this technical assistance document, the Access Board uses the terms “must” or “required” with reference to the applicable ADA, ABA, and Section 508 Standards with which entities must comply. The words “should” or “recommends” refer to additional recommendations for accessible EV charging stations. Recommendations are not legally binding on any regulated entity but are provided as technical assistance to help regulated entities design and install EV charging stations that are accessible to and usable by people with disabilities.
Types of EV Charging Stations that Must Be Accessible
Entities subject to the ADA or ABA must provide EV charging stations that are accessible to and usable by people with disabilities.
Residential housing facilities provided by a state or local government
Public EV charging stations provided by a private entity
Fleet charging stations used by the federal government
Commercial fleet charging stations available to corporate clients
Rest stops along the Interstate Highway System
AC Level 2: A charger that uses a 240-volt alternating-current (AC) electrical circuit to deliver electricity to the EV.
Charger: A device with one or more charging ports and connectors for charging EVs. A charger is also called electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) or EV charger.
Charging Network: A collection of chargers located on one or more property(ies) that are connected via digital communications to manage the facilitation of payment, the facilitation of electrical charging, and any related data requests.
Charging Network Provider: The entity that operates the digital communication network that remotely manages the chargers. Charging Network Providers may also serve as Charging Station Operators and/or manufacture chargers.
Charging Port: The system within a charger that charges one (1) EV. A charging port may have multiple connectors, but it can only provide power to charge one EV through one connector at a time.
Charging Station: One or more EV chargers at a common location. A large site can have multiple charging stations, such as in various parking lots and parking garages.
Charging Station Operator: The entity that operates and maintains the chargers and supporting equipment and facilities at one or more charging stations. This is sometimes called a Charge Point Operator (CPO). In some cases, the Charging Station Operator and the Charging Network Provider are the same entity.
Combined Charging System (CCS): A standard connector interface that allows direct current fast chargers to connect to, communicate with, and charge EVs.
Connector: The device that attaches EVs to charging ports to transfer electricity. Multiple connectors and connector types (such as J1772, CHAdeMO, Tesla, and CCS) can be available on one charging port, but only one vehicle will charge at a time. Connectors are sometimes called plugs.
Contactless Payment Methods: A secure method for consumers to purchase services using a debit, credit, smartcard, or another payment device by using radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and near-field communication (NFC).
Direct Current Fast Charger (DCFC): A charger that uses a 3-phase, 480-volt alternating-current (AC) electrical circuit to enable rapid charging through delivering a direct-current (DC) electricity to the EV.
Electric Vehicle (EV): An automotive vehicle that is either partially or fully powered by electricity.
Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE): See definition of a charger.
Open Charge Point Protocol: An open-source communication protocol that governs the communication between chargers and the charging networks that remotely manage the chargers.
Open Charge Point Interface: An open-source communication protocol that governs the communication between multiple charging networks, other communication networks, and software applications to provide information and services for EV drivers.
Plug and Charge: A method of initiating charging, whereby EV charging customers plug a connector into their vehicle and their identity is authenticated, a charging session initiates, and a payment is transacted automatically, without any other customer actions required at the point of use.
Site: A parcel of land bounded by a property line or a designated portion of a public right-of-way.
Vehicle Charging Inlet: The inlet on a vehicle that a connector is plugged into. Also referred to as a charging port, or charging door.
Vehicle Charging Space: A space to park a vehicle for charging. A vehicle charging space can be a marked parking space, or an unmarked area adjacent to an EV charger.
The following image shows one charging station with two chargers. There are a total of three charging ports capable of charging three vehicles concurrently and four connectors.
Differences Between Charging Spaces and Parking Spaces
Although EV chargers are often installed in parking lots, there are some significant differences in use that warrant EV charging spaces be treated differently from parking spaces.
EV charging requires drivers with disabilities to exit their vehicle, traverse to the charger, and carry the connector back to their vehicle charging inlet (which may be on the opposite side of where they enter/exit their EV). Since EV’s do not have a standard location for the vehicle charging inlet, maneuverability around the entire EV is needed. Also, as DCFC cables get heavier and shorter to achieve faster charging, EV’s need to be parked in a way that aligns the vehicle charging inlet with the charger, which could conflict with the orientation needed for a driver with a disability to use the access aisle.
By contrast, a driver with a disability can use an accessible parking space as long as the vehicle is oriented with the access aisle; a person with a disability could either pull-in or back-in to the parking spot to get the access aisle on the appropriate side. The additional space provided by an access aisle is needed only by the person with a disability (who may be either a driver or passenger) and additional space on the opposite side of the vehicle is usually not needed.
Because of this fundamental difference in use, this document differentiates between parking and EV charging, and primarily focuses on the needs of an EV driver with a disability. The needs of passengers with disabilities are not addressed in this document because it is presumed passengers with disabilities could enter or exit the vehicle at a nearby accessible parking space or passenger loading zone.
Existing Requirements that Apply to EV Charging Stations
Various accessibility standards may apply to EV charging stations, including:
Under the ADA and ABA Accessibility Standards, EV charging stations must comply with the technical requirements for floor and ground surfaces (§302), clear floor or ground space (§305), reach ranges (§308), operable parts (§309), accessible routes (§402), and other provisions when needed, such as some of the provisions in parking (§502), signs (§703), and fare machines (§707). See 36 C.F.R. §1191.1 .
EV chargers developed, procured, maintained, or used by federal agencies must also comply with the revised Section 508 Standards. See 36 C.F.R. §1194.1 , App. A and C . This includes that the user interface (UI) be accessible. EV chargers which do not incorporate a display screen would not be required to be speech-output enabled, but are still ICT and would have accessibility requirements if they are any more complicated than just plugging it in.
Accessible EV Chargers
Unlike gas stations where an attendant may be available to assist with refueling vehicles, EV charging stations are often unattended. Thus, it is important that EV charging stations be sufficiently accessible to allow independent use by drivers with disabilities, including people who have limited or no hand dexterity, limb differences, or upper extremity amputations and use adaptive driving controls.
Two aspects of accessibility need to be considered:
Accessible mobility features
A reasonable number of EV chargers must have physical access for people who use mobility devices, such as wheelchairs, scooters, walkers, and canes. Accessible mobility features primarily concern the size of the vehicle charging space, providing access aisles, how and where the chargers are installed, and the physical operability of the charger. Also see: Number of accessible chargers
Accessible communication features
All EV chargers should have accessible communication features and operable parts. This enables EV chargers to be used by people who are deaf or hard of hearing, little people, and other people with disabilities who do not need accessible mobility features (like access aisles) to use an EV charger.
All EV chargers containing ICT that are developed, procured, maintained, or used by the federal government must comply with the Section 508 Standards and have accessible ICT, including accessible hardware, software, and operable parts.
Accessible Mobility Features
EV chargers designed to serve people who use mobility devices must be located on an accessible route and should provide:
a vehicle charging space at least 11 feet wide and 20 feet long
adjoining access aisle at least 5 feet wide
clear floor or ground space at the same level as the vehicle charging space and positioned for an unobstructed side reach
accessible operable parts, including on the charger and connector
These mobility features allow sufficient space for a person who uses a mobility device to exit and maneuver around the vehicle, retrieve the EV connector, and plug the connector into the electric vehicle charging inlet. Since EVs do not have a uniform vehicle charging inlet location, a larger vehicle charging space is needed to maneuver around all sides of the electric vehicle.
EV charging spaces with mobility features should provide a vehicle space with a minimum width of at least 132 inches (11 feet) and a minimum length of at least 240 inches (20 feet). Adjacent to the vehicle charging space should be an access aisle that is at least 60 inches (5 feet) wide and the full length of the vehicle charging space. A vehicle charging space at least 11 feet wide and 20 feet long would provide sufficient space to maneuver around an electric car, but larger vehicle charging spaces may be needed for electric trucks.
Where vehicle charging spaces are marked, access aisles should also be marked to discourage parking in them. State or local codes may have specific requirements for marking and signing access aisles (e.g., access aisle markings in blue or “no parking in access aisle” signs). The width of the vehicle charging spaces and access aisles is measured to the centerline of markings, but it can include the full width of lines where there is no adjacent vehicle space or access aisle.
One access aisle may be shared by two vehicle charging spaces, or a charging space and a parking space, but overlap of the aisle should be limited to 60 inches (5 feet). The exception in §502.2 that leads to two 8-foot accessible parking spaces sharing an 8-foot access aisle should not be used for vehicle charging spaces because there would be insufficient space to access the vehicle charging inlets on the opposite side of the access aisle.
Access aisles should not be blocked or obscured by curbs, wheel stops, bollards, or charging cable slack. Floor or ground surfaces of vehicle charging spaces and access aisles should comply with §302 and not have changes in level or slopes that exceed 1:48. For more information, please consult the Access Board’s guide on floor and ground surfaces and guide on parking spaces .
Access Aisle Relation to EV Charger
The access aisle must be connected by an accessible route to the clear floor or ground space at the EV charger.
When charging cables are short, the charger should be positioned so that the operable parts and clear floor or ground space are on the same side as the access aisle. This configuration allows for placement of bollards to protect chargers without obstructing clear floor or ground space.
EV chargers with long charging cables have more flexibility regarding placement. With long charging cables, chargers can be placed at the center of the vehicle space or access aisle, or between vehicle spaces, if ample room is available for maneuvering around and between bollards. For more information, please consult sections Clear Floor or Ground Space and Example Charging Scenarios of this technical assistance document.
Alignment of Charger with Location of Vehicle Charging Inlets
The placement of the vehicle charging inlet varies across make and model of EVs. This variety can create challenges to designing an EV charging space with accessible mobility features that can meet the needs of all types of EVs since the vehicle charging inlet needs to align closely to the charger, especially for DCFC with short charging cables. Generally, a person with a disability driving an EV will need the access aisle positioned on the driver’s side.
Examples of Vehicle Charging Inlet Locations
CHARGING INLET LOCATION
S, 3, X, Y
Driver side rear
Driver side front
Driver side front
Driver side front
Passenger side rear
Passenger side front, driver side front
Driver side front
Passenger side rear
Driver side front
Driver side front
Passenger side rear
Driver side front
When designing a charging station to serve multiple types of EV’s with various vehicle charging inlet locations, it is recommended to provide more mobility accessible vehicle charging spaces with a variety of access aisle locations and charger configurations.
Example Charging Scenarios
The scenarios below indicate how a vehicle’s orientation changes depending on the location of the vehicle charging inlet. This is particularly important for DCFCs with short and heavy charging cables. AC Level 2 and some DCFCs that have sufficiently long and light cables may not have this issue.
Charging may not be achievable if cables are too short in scenarios F2 and B2. A better solution is to design the adjacent vehicle charging space to also have accessible mobility features. With two mobility accessible vehicle charging spaces sharing a common access aisle, a variety of charging inlet locations can be served. Longer charging cables should also be provided.
Charging stations designed to serve specific vehicles with consistent and known vehicle charging inlet locations should provide access aisles on the driver side and ensure the vehicle charging inlets align closely with the EV charger.
Clear Floor or Ground Space
To provide accessibility for people who use mobility aids, such as wheelchairs, scooters, walkers, and canes, EV chargers must provide a clear floor or ground space complying with §305 and be located on an accessible route. Clear floor or ground spaces must meet requirements for ground and floor surfaces, including criteria for firmness, stability, and slip resistance. They must be free of changes in level and not sloped more than 1:48. Grass, curbs, wheel stops, and bollards may not be located within the clear floor or ground space.
Clear floor or ground space at chargers must be a minimum of 30 inches by 48 inches. Additional space may be required where the clear floor or ground space is confined on three sides and obstructed for more than half the depth (e.g., bollards, curbs, etc.).
While both a forward approach and parallel approach are permitted under the ADA and ABA Standards, it is recommended that the clear floor or ground space be positioned for a parallel approach to the charger and centered on the operable part. If there are multiple operable parts, the clear floor or ground space should be centered on the EV charger.
EV chargers are highly recommended to be installed at the same level as the vehicle charging space and access aisle so that the clear floor or ground space can be placed as close as possible to the EV charger. This design ensures people who use mobility devices can readily access chargers.
If EV chargers must be installed on a curb, such as at on-street parking, place them as close to the edge of the face of the curb as possible and no farther than 10 inches away from the face of the curb.
Alternatively, the EV charger and a clear floor or ground space can be placed up on the curb or sidewalk, but this design should only be used at existing curbs when it is technically infeasible to lower the curb or sidewalk. The front of the charger should not face the street or curb, and charging cables should be sufficiently long and light enough to allow mobility device users to travel back down the curb ramp and reach their vehicle charging inlet. Reaching some vehicle charging inlets may only be achievable with long charging cables, and DCFCs may be limited to charging only vehicles that have charging inlets that can be reached from the sidewalk. (Also see: On-Street EV Charging Stations Design)
When possible, providing additional clear floor or ground space for a forward approach and turning space is recommended. Aligning the EV charger with the access aisle takes advantage of existing clear floor or ground space.
Operable Parts within Reach Range
At a charging station, a reasonable number of EV chargers must comply with §205 Operable Parts , including technical requirements for clear floor or ground space ( §305), reach ranges& (§308), and| operation ( §309). We recommend EV chargers be designed with parts that are operable by the widest range of users with disabilities, including people with limited or no hand dexterity, limb differences, or upper extremity amputations.
Operable parts on EV chargers include, but are not limited to, the connector, card readers, electronic user interfaces, and switches and buttons, including the emergency start/stop button.
Unobstructed side reach
All operable parts should meet the requirements for an unobstructed side reach (§308.3.1 ) and be no higher than 48 inches above the clear floor or ground space and no farther than 10 inches away. The exception for fuel dispensers should not be used (See: fuel dispensers). Placing operable parts higher than the 15 inch minimum is recommended.
The operable portion must be within an accessible reach range, but non-operable portions can be located outside of reach ranges. For example, a display screen that does not require user touch input, or has buttons located within reach range, can be located above 48 inches. Similarly a card reader that can be activated below 48 inches with a portion of the card reader above 48 inches would still be operable. The operable portion of the connector, particularly the release button and handle, should be below 48 inches. A connector with no release button that can be used without reaching above 48 inches would also be within reach range.
Connectors must meet the requirements for operable parts (§309), including operation with one hand and no tight grasping, pinching, or twisting of the wrist, and no more than five (5) pounds of force to operate.
Connectors generally have a release button that needs to be pressed to connect/disconnect the connector from the vehicle charging inlet. Simultaneously grasping the connector and pressing a release button can be challenging for people with limited hand dexterity. Connectors that are a consistent diameter and very smooth are also challenging because they require grasping, especially when cables and connectors are heavy.
One way to informally test if an element is sufficiently accessible for a person with limited hand dexterity is to try operation of the element with a closed fist. Connector designs that have a handle with a release button on the inside, similar to a fuel dispenser, can be more accessible because a person can often place a closed fist inside of the handle and simultaneously pull on the connector and press the release button. The addition of straps and loops may also help a user carry the connector because it could be looped onto the user’s wrist or arm, or even hung on the user’s mobility device, to free both hands up to maneuver a mobility device (e.g. push a wheelchair, keep both hands on a walker etc.).
Future connector designs that are more accessible are encouraged. Until more accessible connectors are available, some chargers may be limited to using connectors that require pressing a release button with the thumb.
Manufacturers have developed automatic connection devices, which improve accessibility of EV charging because they eliminate the need to physically manipulate the connector. When possible, consider installing automatic connection devices, especially at fleet charging stations.
The ADA and ABA Accessibility Standards require operable parts to be operable with no more than 5 pounds of force and to not require tight grasping, pinching, or twisting of the wrist.
Light weight charging cables (AC Level 2, and some DCFCs) should be of sufficient length to charge a vehicle with various charging inlet locations.
As thicker and heavier charging cables are used to achieve faster charging speeds, it becomes more difficult for people who use mobility devices to lift the cable and carry it back and forth to their vehicle charging inlet. Heavier and shorter DCFC cables should be able to charge a vehicle positioned at least 60 inches (5 feet) away and be installed so that users can access the vehicle charging inlet, access aisle, and charger.
Charging cables cannot block or obstruct accessible routes when stored or when connected to vehicles. Cable management systems can be provided to prevent cable slack from accumulating on the ground and potentially offset the weight of heavier DCFC cables, but cable management systems must be kept in good condition to maintain the accessibility of the chargers. Overhead cable management systems may also be able to help with cable weight and operation, but the systems and cables must not become protruding objects.
There are many promising solutions to the issue of heavy charging cables, including the use of cable management systems, automatic connection devices, and wireless charging, which could greatly improve accessibility. In the interim, however, the benefits of fast charging provide greater user convenience and should be available at accessible EV charging stations, even if the issue of charging cable weight has not been addressed. Persons with disabilities should still have access to DCFCs and not be restricted to AC Level 2 chargers. Future innovations may address the issue of charging cable weight and should be used when available to achieve accessible operation.
Accessible Communication Features
Accessible communication features enable people who are deaf or hard of hearing, people with vision impairments (but who drive), little people, and other people with disabilities who might not need accessible mobility features (like access aisles) to use an EV charger.
All EV chargers should have accessible communication features and operable parts. All EV chargers that are procured or maintained by a federal agency must comply with the Section 508 Standards because they are Information Communication Technology (ICT). See 36 C.F.R. §1194.1 , App. A & C.
Although the ADA and ABA Accessibility Standards have technical requirements for ATM and fare machines (§707), and two-way communication systems (§708) that could be informative, only the Section 508 requirements are referenced in this section of the document because they are similar, but more detailed.
Although a number of provisions are specific to the accessibility needs of people who are blind and low vision and who cannot drive a vehicle, the provisions are still applicable to EV chargers purchased or used by federal agencies. Entities concerned only with ADA requirements may have a limited need for certain accessible communication features (e.g. braille instructions, tactilely discernible features, speech output, audio descriptions) on an EV charger, however some of these features may benefit all users. For example, speech output may be helpful if there is glare on the display screen, and elements that are tactilely discernible are easier to find in the dark. By universally designing EV chargers with the needs of people with disabilities in mind, a better user experience can be provided for all.
EV Charger User Interface
Many EV chargers have an electronic user interface (UI) and are similar to smart parking meters or fare vending machines. Section 508 includes technical requirements for operable parts and reach ranges that were previously addressed. Section 508 also has technical requirements for hardware that include:
Visible from a point located 40 inches above the clear floor or ground space (§408.2)
Avoid bright rapid flashing (more than 3 flashes per second) (§408.3)
At least one mode with text characters in sans serif font, adjustable text size or minimum character height of 3/16 inch (§402.4)
Speech Output Enabled: There must be an option for display screens to provide speech output that is capable of full and independent use by individuals with vision impairments.
Speech output must provide all information displayed on-screen, including information necessary to verify the interaction and transaction with the EV Charger.
Speech output must be coordinated with information displayed on the display screen.
Speech output must allow for pausing and repeating.
Braille instructions provided for initiating the speech-output mode (402.2)
Volume controls (402.3) must be provided for the speech output.
Labels on keys and for visual controls must have high contrast (§407.2)
Controls must be tactically discernible.
When alphabetical keys are provided, they must use a QWERTY layout.
Where a numeric keypad is provided, it must use a standard layout ( §407.3)
If keys repeat, there must be at least a 2 second delay before a key repeat (§407.4)
If a timed response is required, the user must be alerted visually and by sound (or touch), and given the opportunity to indicate more time is needed (§407.5)
Keys or Cards
If the EV Charger requires the user to have a NFC key-chain card or other physical token, and that key/card requires a particular orientation for its use, then the key/card must provide a tactically discernible orientation.
Audible signals or cues must not be the only single means of conveying information, indicating an action, or prompting response. For example, an audible warning tone needs to be paired with a visual indicator.
Color must not be the only means of conveying information, indicating an action, or prompting response. Color can be used to convey meaning but needs to be supplemented with other visual means of conveying information such as the use of position, or different markings or shapes.
Visual status indicators, like the status of EV charging, should also be discernible by sound (or touch) (§409).
Registration and payment card readers should be compatible with contactless payment systems, tactically discernible, and provide visual and audible feedback. Tactile discernability can be achieved by slightly raising the contactless system reader, providing tactile labels, or by providing card readers capable of both inserting/swiping a card and contactless payment. Visual and audible feedback can be achieved with lights or display screens, and sounds or audio recordings.
Charging station operators should provide customer service, help support, or other mechanisms to report outages, malfunctions, obstructed EV chargers, and other issues. Technical requirements for two-way voice communication can be found in Section 508 ( §412 ), and effective communication is addressed in DOJ ADA regulations. Multilingual access may also be required.
Chargers can provide signs or labels with phone numbers/TTY, text message support, or help features integrated into the user interface. Multiple means of communicating audibly and visually should be provided.
If two-way voice communication is integrated into the EV charger, §412 of Section 508 requires:
Volume gain controls
Effective means for coupling with hearing aids.
This can be a handset conforming to ANSI/IEEE C63.19-2011 or TIA-1083-B.
For IP-based networks, this can be achieved by conforming with ITU-T Recommendation G.722.2 or IETF RFC 6716
Audio jacks are the most common approach.
Any caller ID feature must be both visible and audible
If video communication is supported, it must be of sufficient quality to support communication using sign language.
Support for bi-directional text communication, TTY functionality, or compatibility with legacy TTY systems.
Websites and Mobile Applications
Many EV charging stations have websites and mobile applications used to locate charging stations, pay for electricity, start/stop charging, and send notifications to users. These websites and mobile applications must conform to industry standards for digital accessibility. The Department of Justice has guidance on web accessibility and the ADA . Section 508 requires websites and mobile applications to be accessible and incorporates by reference the W3C Web Content Accessibility Guidelines ( WCAG 2.0 ).
Charging Networks should utilize the Open Charge Point Protocol (OCPP) and provide information on accessibility in addition to the connector type, output power, availability, repair status, etc. Specific information on accessibility is more helpful than a generic designation of “accessible”. Specific information could include:
Accessible Mobility features
Access aisle left side
Access aisle right side
Long charging cable (capable of reaching a vehicle charging inlet regardless of vehicle orientation)
accessible connector (operable by people with limited hand dexterity)
automatic connection device
Accessible Communication features
accessible user interface (section 508)
“Plug and Charge” compatible
Providing pictures of accessible EV charging stations and chargers is also encouraged.
The Access Board welcomes collaboration with the Open Charge Alliance to develop protocols for information on accessibility.
EV Charging Station Location within a Site
An EV charging station must connect to an accessible route that leads to an accessible entrance of the building or facilities on the same site. Additionally, the accessible EV chargers should be on the shortest accessible route to the accessible entrance relative to other chargers at the same charging station.
EV charging stations in parking garages must provide an accessible route that connects to the accessible pedestrian entrance of the parking garage. Additionally, a minimum vertical clearance of 98 inches should be maintained throughout the vehicular route to the accessible vehicle charging space and access aisle.
Sites with EV charging stations as the primary purpose should include accessible routes that connect to any amenities on the site and, if provided, a sidewalk in the public right-of-way.
Multiple EV Charging Station Locations within a Site
Adding EV Charging Stations to Existing Parking Lots
EV charging stations added to existing sites must comply with the ADA and ABA requirements for alterations and additions. In alterations, compliance with the ADA and ABA standards is required to the maximum extent feasible (§202.3). For more information, please consult the Access Board’s guide on alterations and additions .
When EV charging stations are added to an existing site, they must connect to an accessible route and a reasonable number of EV chargers must comply with §309 and have a clear floor or ground space and operable parts within reach range. Also see: Number of accessible chargers
Converting accessible parking spaces to EV charging spaces is not recommended, especially when use will be restricted to electrical vehicle charging only. The ADA and ABA standards prohibit an alteration that decreases accessibility below the requirements for new construction (§202.3.1). If an existing accessible parking space is converted to an EV charging space, the minimum number of accessible parking spaces required by table 208.2 must be recalculated based on the total number of parking spaces provided, and accessible parking spaces may need to be added elsewhere.
Key considerations when adding EV chargers with accessible mobility features to existing parking facilities:
Can the chargers be connected by a compliant accessible route to the accessible entrance of the building or facility?
Is the slope and cross slope of the vehicle charging space less than 1:48? Can the floor or ground surface be altered to achieve slopes less than 1:48?
Is there sufficient space for an 11-foot-wide, 20-foot-long vehicle space and 5-foot-wide access aisle?
Can the chargers be placed at the same level as the vehicle charging space? Will existing curbs and landscaping need to be removed or altered to place chargers at the same level as the vehicle charging space?
Can a clear floor or ground space positioned for a parallel approach with an unobstructed side reach be provided?
Is the clear floor or ground space firm, stable, and slip resistant?
If EV chargers must be mounted on a curb, are operable parts of the chargers still within an unobstructed side reach and no farther than 10 inches and no higher than 48 inches above the clear floor or ground space?
What existing site constraints are there, and would locating chargers elsewhere on the site make them more accessible?
EV Charging Stations at Residential Facilities
Shared or common use EV chargers located at residential facilities provided by a state or local government must be accessible.
EV chargers that are designated to specific residential units should provide the appropriate accessibility features. When residential facilities designate parking spaces to each residential unit, the parking space for the mobility accessible unit must be an accessible parking space (§184.108.40.206). Similarly, a charger provided for a mobility accessible residential unit should have an electric vehicle charging space with accessible mobility features. A charger provided for a communication accessible residential unit should have an electric vehicle charger with accessible communication features. Upon request, additional chargers may need to be made mobility and/or communication accessible.
EV chargers installed at privately-owned residential housing are not subject to the ADA. However, privately-owned multifamily housing may be subject to the Fair Housing Act (FHA) and may be required to be accessible. For more information, contact the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Fair Housing Accessibility First at 1-888-341-7781 or [email protected].
EV chargers installed on the sidewalk for on-street parallel parking should locate chargers with mobility features at the end of the block, or at the closest curb ramp. Section R309 of the proposed Public Right-of-Way Accessibility Guidelines provides design requirements for accessible on-street parking spaces, which can be used to design accessible charging spaces.
Chargers can be placed on narrow sidewalks but should be oriented facing the sidewalk and not the street in order to ensure there is adequate clear floor or ground space in front of the charger to allow for a person with a disability to approach and operate the charger. Chargers should not be placed within the middle 50% of the sidewalk adjacent to the on-street parallel parking space because this design would obstruct entry to and exit from the vehicle.
It may be challenging to bring the charging cable out to the street to connect to a vehicle with a charging inlet located on the street side, so use of chargers at on-street parallel parking may be limited to charging electric vehicles with charging inlets located on the same side as the sidewalk. Providing chargers on both sides of one-way streets is a more accessible option.
On-street parking with wide sidewalks complying with § R309.2.1 have 5-foot access aisles at street level. EV chargers can be provided at the ends of the space or along the side up on the sidewalk. Clear floor or ground space at EV chargers, access aisles, and accessible routes must not be obstructed by bollards, curbs, trees, grass, garbage cans, etc. Accessible routes must not be blocked when cables are connected to vehicles.
Fleet Electric Vehicle Charging Stations
Fleet vehicles are cars owned by an organization (business, nonprofit group, or government agency). Under the ABA, fleet EV charging stations at facilities designed, built, altered, or leased with federal funds for charging organizations’ vehicles must be accessible.
Fleet EV charging stations that serve various businesses are considered a place of public accommodation or commercial facility and must comply with the ADA Standards. Examples include a vehicle manufacturer that installs charging stations to serve its corporate fleet customers.
Employee Use of EV Chargers
Under §203.9 of the ADA Standards, entities subject to Title II or Title III of the ADA may be eligible for an exception for EV charging stations provided at a commercial facility for charging fleet vehicles under the employee work area exception if charging stations are used only by employees for charging company/fleet vehicles. However, it is recommended that at least one EV charger have accessible mobility features to accommodate employees with disabilities because the employer may be required to provide an accessible EV charger if requested by an employee as a reasonable accommodation.
If charging stations are provided for employees to charge their personal vehicles, the employee work area exception would not apply and EV charging stations must be accessible.
EV chargers provided for specific employees to charge their personal vehicles should provide accessibility as needed.
Pull-Through EV Charging Stations Design
As EV charging gets faster and more EVs become capable of towing, EV charging stations may be designed for pull-through or drive-up access, similar to gas stations. Pull-through EV charging stations do not need to mark or stripe vehicle charging spaces, but they should provide at least sixteen (16) feet of width for vehicle charging spaces. Charging cables should be able to connect to a vehicle positioned five (5) feet away.
Chargers with accessible mobility features must have a clear floor or ground space and operable parts within reach range (i.e., less than 48 inches above the ground). Bollards aligned with the sides of EV chargers provide protection without obstructing use. Designing all pull-through EV chargers with accessible mobility features is encouraged and can be achieved by avoiding installation on curbs. If installation on curbs is required, it is recommended to create a cutout in the curb that allows the clear floor or ground space to be placed closer to the charger. Also see: Are EV charging stations considered fuel dispensers and eligible for the reach range exception #2 in 308.3?
The use of automatic connection devices is encouraged at fleet charging stations, especially when chargers serve a specific vehicle make and model. If/when very short charging times are achieved, it may be unnecessary to exit the vehicle for charging.
The use of lighting can be an effective way to indicate where an EV charging station is located within a site. Lighting can also be an effective way to indicate which chargers are accessible, which are in use, in which are not working. Lighting also helps with the operation of the charger, including plugging the connector into the vehicle charging inlet at night.
The use of shelters to protect EV charging stations and their users from the elements (rain, snow/ice, and extreme sun/heat) is also recommended. Snow and ice can be difficult, if not impossible, for a mobility device user to traverse over. Plowed snow should not obstruct access to and use of the EV charger. Black charging cables in the extreme sun/heat can also burn people with limited sensation. Shelter supports, such as columns and pylons, should not be installed in or obstruct vehicle charging spaces or access aisles, and must not be installed in or obstruct clear floor or ground space and accessible routes.
Innovations in automatic connection devices and wireless or inductive EV charging can greatly improve accessibility. This could simplify the charging process, including the potential to eliminate the need to access and operate the charger. If/when very short charging times are achieved, it may be unnecessary to exit the vehicle for charging.
Number of Accessible Chargers
The ADA and ABA Guidelines do not specifically address how many chargers must be accessible at an EV charging station. Under the ADA Standards, when a facility or element does not have specific scoping requirements, access to a “reasonable number” is required under the general prohibitions against discrimination in the Department of Justice (DOJ) regulations for Title II and Title III entities. For more information, please contact the DOJ Office of Civil Rights at 1-800-514-0301 or 1-800-514-0383 (TTY).
This “reasonable number” must be accessible to and usable by people with disabilities, and where appropriate technical requirements for elements and spaces are provided in the ADA Standards, a reasonable number must meet those technical requirements.
The Access Board will be issuing a Notice of Proposed Rule Making that will solicit comments from the public on the minimum number of chargers that must be accessible at EV charging stations. Several approaches are possible, including:
a minimum number based on the table in 208.2 for accessible parking spaces
aligning with the 2021 International Building Code (IBC) that requires 5%
a “use last” approach where a higher percentage have accessible mobility features, but are not reserved or restricted to people with disabled parking placards/license plates. See more on the “use last” approach
a hybrid approach of use last and reserved
Issues concerning signage at accessible EV charging spaces include use of the ISA and how to indicate if accessible charging spaces should be reserved for use only by people with disabilities, or available for use by people without disabilities when all other chargers are being used.
In the interim, several states have already issued accessibility requirements for EV charging stations. If a state or local code requires a minimum number of chargers be accessible, at least that minimum number must be provided.
Signs displaying the ISA are not recommended at accessible EV charging spaces at this time, unless required by a state or local code.
The Access Board recommends designing at least two EV charging spaces with accessible mobility features, and providing accessible communication features and operable parts at all EV chargers.
This can be achieved with the following example EV charging station designs:
“Use Last” Approach to EV chargers with accessible mobility features
Traditionally, accessible parking spaces are identified with the International Symbol of Accessibility (ISA) and reserved for use only by a person with a disability placard or license plate. Use of the ISA at EV charging spaces causes confusion about whether people without a disability placard can use accessible EV charging spaces. Since EV charging stations usually have only a few chargers, reserving a charging space only for use by a person with a disability placard may result in underutilized chargers.
The “use last” model would require more EV charging spaces be designed with accessible mobility features, but would not require that the charging spaces be reserved exclusively for people with disability placards. People without disability placards could use accessible EV charging spaces when all others are occupied, resulting in greater use of available chargers. This would allow mobility device users to have more options to find a charging space with the ideal design for their EV, and alternative charging spaces to use if a charger is broken or obscured. Having alternatives is extremely important, especially if the next accessible charging station is very far away.
A “use last” sign would indicate an EV charging space is accessible, but also direct people to use this space only when other charging spaces are occupied or accessibility features are needed.
At the time of this guidance, neither Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) nor any other code-setting organization has a standard for “use last” signs, but the Access Board has designed several examples.
The Access Board provides technical assistance on the ADA accessibility guidelines and on accessible design through its toll-free helpline at 1-800-872-2253 and by email at [email protected] from 10:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. (ET) weekdays.
For questions specific to electric vehicle charging stations, you may direct them to Randall Duchesneau at [email protected].
Earlier this week it was announced by Walmart they are purchasing 4500 EV vehicles for delivery. RIS News notes some of the conditions built into that purchase. Contact [email protected] for more information.
Option for 10,000 units
Sustainable delivery reduces emissions by Walmart (aiming for zero by 2040)
agreement includes a caveat blocking sales to Amazon, disclosed in a securities filing Wednesday, reports Bloomberg.
Amazon already has an agreement with Rivian Automotive to buy electric vans and with Stellantis
Canoo’s electric vehicles will be driven by Walmart associates and used to deliver online orders, from groceries to general merchandise, as well as the potential to be used for Walmart GoLocal, the retailer’s delivery-as-a-service business.
The LDV is engineered for high frequency stop-and-go deliveries and quick vehicle to door drop-off, including grocery and food/meal delivery. Its customized interior is designed for small package delivery, at competitive per stop economics. The modular design and 120 cubic feet cargo volume are adaptable to evolve with customer needs.